VN June 2024

VET Junie / June 2024 The Monthly Magazine of the SOUTH AFRICAN VETERINARY ASSOCIATION Die Maandblad van die SUID-AFRIKAANSE VETERINÊRE VERENIGING Pigeon Paramyxovirus (PPMV-1) of Pigeons CPD THEME WVA Congress 2024 Attendance nuus•news CPD article QR code

Dagboek • Diary Ongoing / Online 2024 June 2024 August 2024 SAVETCON: Webinars Info: Corné Engelbrecht, SAVETCON, 071 587 2950, corne@savetcon.co.za / https://app.livestorm.co/svtsos Acupuncture – Certified Mixed Species Course Info: Chi University: https://chiu.edu/courses/cva#aboutsouthafrica@tcvm.com SAVA Johannesburg Branch CPD Events Monthly - please visit the website for more info. Venue: Johannesburg Country Club Info: Vetlink - https://savaevents.co.za/ Hill’s Young Vets Weekend 08-09 June Venue: Glenburne Lodge, Muldersdrift, Gauteng Info: corne@savetcon.co.za https://savetcon.co.za/hills-young-vets-weekend-2024/ SAVA Western Cape Branch Congress 02-03 August Venue: Protea Hotel, Technopark, Stellenbosch Info: www.vetlink.co.za SAVA Oranje Vaal Branch Mini Congress 09-11 August Venue: Parys – venue to be confirmed. Info: conference@savetcon.co.za NVCG Bush Break 12-13 August Venue: Skukuza, Kruger National Park Info: https://vetlink.co.za/nvcg-2024/ 21st Annual SASVEPM Congress 21-23 August Venue: Lagoon Beach Hotel, Cape Town Info: https://sasvepm.org/sasvepm-congress-2024/ September 2024 October 2024 November 2024 8th World One Health Congress 20-23 September Venue: CTICC, Cape Town, South Africa Info: https://globalohc.org/8WOHC or contact conferences@vetlink.co.za SAVA Northern Natal and Midlands Branch Congress 05-06 October Venue: Lythwood Lodge, Midlands Info: www.vetlink.co.za PARSA Conference 06 – 08 October Venue: Villa Paradiso, Hartbeespoort, Gauteng Info: corne@savetcon.co.za SAAVT 2024 Conference 09 – 10 October Venue: 26 Degrees South, Muldersdrift Info: conference@savetcon.co.za or https://savetcon.co.za/2024-saavt-biennial-congress/ 12th IAVRPT Symposium 30 October – 02 November Venue: Somerset-West, Cape Town, South Africa Info: https://iavrpt2024.co.za/ or contact conferences@vetlink.co.za Poultry Group of SAVA Annual Congress 06-08 November Venue: 26 Degrees South, Muldersdrift, Gauteng Info: conferences@savetcon.co.za https://savetcon.co.za/poultry2024/

Vetnuus | June 2024 1 Contents I Inhoud President: Dr Paul van der Merwe president@sava.co.za Managing Director: Mr Gert Steyn md@sava.co.za/ +27 (0)12 346 1150 Editor VetNews: Ms Andriette van der Merwe vetnews@sava.co.za Bookkeeper: Ms Susan Heine accounts@sava.co.za/+27 (0)12 346 1150 Bookkeeper's Assistant: Ms Sonja Ludik bookkeeper@sava.co.za/+27 (0)12 346 1150 Secretary: Ms Elize Nicholas elize@sava.co.za/ +27 (0)12 346 1150 Reception: Ms Hanlie Swart reception@sava.co.za/ +27 (0)12 346 1150 Marketing & Communications: Ms Sonja van Rooyen marketing@sava.co.za/ +27 (0)12 346 1150 Membership Enquiries: Ms Debbie Breeze debbie@sava.co.za/ +27 (0)12 346 1150 Vaccination booklets: Ms Debbie Breeze debbie@sava.co.za/ +27 (0)12 346 1150 South African Veterinary Foundation: Ms Debbie Breeze savf@sava.co.za/ +27 (0)12 346 1150 Community Veterinary Clinics: Ms Claudia Cloete cvcmanager@sava.co.za/ +27 (0)63 110 7559 SAVETCON: Ms Corné Engelbrecht corne@savetcon.co.za/ +27 (0)71 587 2950 VetNuus is ‘n vertroulike publikasie van die SAVV en mag nie sonder spesifieke geskrewe toestemming vooraf in die openbaar aangehaal word nie. Die tydskrif word aan lede verskaf met die verstandhouding dat nóg die redaksie, nóg die SAVV of sy ampsdraers enige regsaanspreeklikheid aanvaar ten opsigte van enige stelling, feit, advertensie of aanbeveling in hierdie tydskrif vervat. VetNews is a confidential publication for the members of the SAVA and may not be quoted in public or otherwise without prior specific written permission to do so. This magazine is sent to members with the understanding that neither the editorial board nor the SAVA or its office bearers accept any liability whatsoever with regard to any statement, fact, advertisement or recommendation made in this magazine. VetNews is published by the South African Veterinary Association STREET ADDRESS 47 Gemsbok Avenue, Monument Park, Pretoria, 0181, South Africa POSTAL ADDRESS P O Box 25033, Monument Park Pretoria, 0105, South Africa TELEPHONE +27 (0)12 346-1150 FAX General: +27 (0) 86 683 1839 Accounts: +27 (0) 86 509 2015 WEB www.sava.co.za CHANGE OF ADDRESS Please notify the SAVA by email: debbie@sava.co.za or letter: SAVA, P O Box 25033, Monument Park, Pretoria, 0105, South Africa CLASSIFIED ADVERTISEMENTS (Text to a maximum of 80 words) Sonja van Rooyen assistant@sava.co.za +27 (0)12 346 1150 DISPLAY ADVERTISEMENTS Sonja van Rooyen assistant@sava.co.za +27 (0)12 346 1150 DESIGN AND LAYOUT Sonja van Rooyen PRINTED BY Business Print: +27 (0)12 843 7638 VET nuus•news Diary / Dagboek II Dagboek • Diary Regulars / Gereeld 2 From the President 4 Editor’s notes / Redakteurs notas Articles / Artikels 6 39th World Veterinary Association Congress 14 10th WVA Global One Health Summit 16 WVA Congress 2024: The Animal Welfare Seminar 17 WVA Congress 2024: The Veterinary Education Seminar 18 WVA Congress 2024: History Theme 22 A robust Quality System is essential for Compounded Veterinary Medicines Association / Vereniging 24 CVC News 26 SAVA News 36 Legal Mews Events / Gebeure 28 Heloise Heyne – 4th recipient of the HH Curson Award 30 Onderstepoort residence centenary celebrations Vet's Health / Gesondheid 38 Life Coaching Technical / Tegnies 39 Royal Canin Column 40 Dental Column Relax / Ontspan 48 Life Plus 25 Marketplace / Markplein 42 Marketplace Jobs / Poste 43 Marketplace/Jobs / Poste 46 Classifieds / Snuffeladvertensies 6 26 14 Scan the QR code for easy access to this month's CPD article «

Vetnews | Junie 2024 2 « BACK TO CONTENTS VETERINARY SERVICES AT A CRITICAL JUNCTION Veterinary services in South Africa are at a critical junction with more veterinarians leaving the profession or emigrating than qualifying each year. With the already major shortage of veterinarians with only 3500 registered, many of whom are not practising due to other fields of work, retirement or those that have emigrated but maintain their registration, South Africa cannot afford to lose a single veterinarian for whatever reason. The extra burden placed on those who stay behind has major manifestations. Collegial interrelationships are at an all-time low and are cited as one of the main reasons for, especially young veterinarians, for leaving the country. Yet client demands increase by the day as they expect the same service to be delivered albeit an ever-increasing number of animals in South Africa, especially companion animals post-Covid, with an ever-decreasing workforce. Onerous client relationships have been mentioned as the second most important reason for young veterinarians to consider emigrating. These and other factors also have a major financial toll on practices and it is often mooted that practices that cannot make ends meet anymore are closing down, often leaving rural communities without any veterinary care. The more stressors experienced by our veterinarians, the more leave the profession or emigrate, increasing these stressors, a vicious circle indeed. These stressors, however, also have a significant impact on the mental health of our veterinary community. (See the complete article in the is edition). More than a third of veterinarians in South Africa showed signs of moderate to severe depression, and of these, more than 60% have contemplated self-harm or suicide. Do you know three veterinarians? If so, one of them is most likely experiencing some level of depression. Around 7% of veterinarians in South Africa showed signs of severe depression and of these almost 80% have contemplated self-harm or suicide. Most shocking is that 25% of those who showed signs of severe depression are contemplating self-harm or suicide daily! This shocking statistic is evident in how many veterinarians have already committed suicide this year. If you know 15 veterinarians chances are that you know one of those who is contemplating self-harm or suicide daily. But what can be done? Must the number of veterinarians qualifying each year be increased by opening a second veterinary faculty (Discussions are underway but it will take at least 10 to 15 years to train its first graduates), or should we “contract” foreign faculties to train South Africans (There are already more than 50 students in foreign faculties but they experience major bureaucracy challenges in returning), or must we nurture the new graduates to see if we can convince them to stay in South Africa, the only immediate short-term solution? The major negative mental health impact can be ascribed to the fact that the resilience of South African veterinarians is inadequate. Of the more than one-third of veterinarians showing signs of moderate to severe depression, all had a Resillince Index below the internationally accepted norm. In fact, more than 70% of South African veterinarians are below the internationally accepted norm. It was shown, however, that the group where the biggest impact for resilience training can be made is the final year students and the first two years of professional life. It was therefore proposed that resilience training be included in the Mentorship Program. Unfortunately, indications are that the HWSETA which has sponsored the program to date, is either going to decrease the funding or stop it at all. Canvassing is underway to find alternative sources of funding in the animal health product industry, the production animal industry and other sources as all of them will suffer the consequences if veterinary services have to reach a point of no return. We as a profession need to face, confront and interrogate current realities and put our differences aside whilst there is still time to do something. It is, however, unfair to expect SAVA and its membership to take action alone and to carry the brunt and financial responsibility to the benefit of the wider profession. It is time that SAVA members say to non-members that enough is enough. We as members are no longer au fait with sponsoring activities to the benefit of all veterinarians, and in this case, also paraveterinarians. ALL of us, members, non-members para veterinary professionals, the animal health products industry, production animal industry and other veterinary-related sectors, have a responsibility, inclusive of financial responsibilities, to push back and ensure our noble profession stays afloat. It is time we confront non-members with the reality as long as we can hang on by the tips of our fingernails! If it crashes, ALL of us will lose our veterinary professional freedom. I, the President of SAVA, am willing to stand up and confront those who are not prepared to take up their responsibilities to save our profession. Are you prepared to do the same or are you happy for a takeover losing your veterinary professional freedom? v Kind regards, Paul van der Merwe From the President Dear members, “You need to face, you need to confront, and really properly look at what's happening, and not try and explain it away or give it justifications or anything, because at this juncture, we still, by our fingernails, have the chance to make a difference, and turn this around. And to not take part and to just watch…….., but if you don't push back if you don't face it and confront it for what it is, it'll just take over, and then no one will be free.” Vivian Kubrick

Vetnuus | June 2024 3 “The South African Veterinary Association aims to serve its members and to further the status and image of the veterinarian. We are committed to upholding the highest professional and scientific standards by utilising the professional knowledge, skill and resources of our members, to foster close ties with the community and thus promote the health and welfare of animals and mankind”. MISSION STATEMENT Servicing and enhancing the veterinary community since 1920! Tel: 012 346 1150 E-mail: vethouse@sava.co.za www.sava.co.za STUDY VETERINARY MEDICINE IN CYPRUS DOCTOR OF VETERINARY MEDICINE (DVM) 5-Year Programme for High School Leavers unic.ac.cy/vet EARLY CLINICAL EXPOSURE AND TRAINING in small groups with both large and small animals from year one. CURRICULUM ALIGNED WITH RCVS, AVMA, EAEVE, AND WORLD ORGANIZATION FOR ANIMAL HEALTH INNOVATIVE, HANDS-ON CURRICULUM designed to offer you the necessary Day One skills required to follow any career pathway in veterinary medicine. COMMUNITY SERVICE AND ANIMAL WELFARE volunteerism and service opportunities with sheltered animals. TALENTED AND DEDICATED FACULTY MEMBERS AND STAFF facilitating and guiding your learning and development as a veterinarian. FINANCIAL AID SCHOLARSHIPS AVAILABLE

Vetnews | Junie 2024 4 « BACK TO CONTENTS Dear readers, This past month I had the opportunity to look a lot more carefully at the attendance figures of the past World Veterinary Association Congress. I realise that it may not be a 100% true reflection of the actual attendance but it is the closest to anything we have had before, without putting too much pressure on session chairs to physically count attendees. Some Figures in short: 13 Venues were used to give 341 presentations in 291 hours, brought by about 200 presenters. A formidable task indeed. That does not include the opening and closing events and excludes the Summits and Seminars. Today I tip my hat to every single person involved to make this Congress the great success it was. I am not going to single out anybody because there were people that were the face of the congress but many many more working behind the scenes. If it was not for the collective effort of every single person, it would not have been a success. The success goes beyond the organisation. You can plate up the best you can give but if nobody attends, it is all in vain. Here is another shout-out to the attendees. You came in drones, you were hungry to learn more, but you were also hungry to mingle and “kuier” with colleagues. That was very very visible in the great attendance of the social events. From the Opening cocktail to the Gala dinner, it was great to see congressgoers relaxing and enjoying themselves. Only to be back the next day and benefit from the presentations. The third grouping not to be forgotten is the exhibitors. During the congress, I noticed that the stalls were overflowing with attendees, and the tradespeople pulled the literal rabbit out of the hat to engage and entertain visitors. From baristas to games and the always-present giveaways. We hope you made good business. The fourth group is that of the presenters, you brought a variety of presentations for the attendees to enjoy and to learn from. When compiling the top attended presentations it made me extremely proud of how many were from our own people, our own veterinarians. Vets who took the time to prepare and deliver material for others to participate in. It was great. I spent some time analysing the figures and in this and the next few Vetnews’s, there will be a list of, according to the available statistics, to top attended presentations per broad category. If there is anything that tickles your fancy and you could get to the presentation, drop me an email and I will see if we can get the presenter to write an article on the subject. While not sure how accurate this is, but again from available figures, the top 10 attendees were as follows: Dr Rowena Watson with 40 presentations, Dr Anthony Davis with 36, Dr Emmanuelle Von Klemperer with 28, Dr Tanya Trenoweth and dr Henk Basson with 27, Dr Fabiola Quesada with 26 and Dr Kirsty Burton and Dr Tiksha Modi with 25. Again thank you for your hard work and participation May June be kind to you Andriette v From the Editor Editor’s notes / Redakteurs notas

Vetnuus | June 2024 5 We, the members of the Association, resolve at all times: • To honour our profession and the Veterinary Oath • To maintain and uphold high professional and scientific standards • To use our professional knowledge, skills and resources to protect and promote the health and welfare of animals and humans • To further the status and image of the veterinarian and to foster and enrich veterinary science • To promote the interests of our Association and fellowship amongst its members. Ons, die lede van die Vereniging, onderneem om te alle tye: • Ons professie in ere te hou en die Eed na te kom • ‘n Hoë professionele en wetenskaplike peil te handhaaf en te onderhou • Ons professionele kennis, vaardigheid en hulpbronne aan te wend ter beskerming en bevordering van die gesondheid en welsyn van dier en mens • Die status en beeld van die veearts te bevorder en die veeartsenykunde te verryk • Die belange van ons Vereniging en die genootskap tussen sy lede te bevorder. CREDO

Vetnews | Junie 2024 6 « BACK TO CONTENTS The SAVA was honoured to have won the bid to host the 39th World Veterinary Association Congress in Cape Town in April 2024. It was the second time the SAVA got to host this prestigious event and with no better place than Cape Town, seen as one of the best tourism destinations as well as Safe and Clean cities in the world. During the congress, the movement in and out of presentation halls was monitored by a Radio Frequency Identification Tag included in every congress badge. Scanners were set up at all the entrances and a total of 17 517 records were received from Flock, the eventing platform. Although it is known that the data may not be 100% correct as it was slightly experimental, it indicates the attendance figures for the congress. Some of the venues did unfortunately not record and there will likely be people who were not recorded. From a presentation point of view, it was expected that the small animal presentations would receive the most hits, and it was indeed the case: On the first day of the congress, Dr Etienne Côté presentation on ‘Coughing in a dog with a heart murmur: cardiac or noncardiac’ drew the largest number of attendees for the whole congress, an estimated 258 people attended. Etienne Côté DVM, DACVIM Department of Companion Animals, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, PE, Canada, C1A 4P3 Dogs with heart disease often are presented for veterinary evaluation because they are coughing. The principle of finding a unifying diagnosis when a patient has several concurrent clinical signs is a basic principle of veterinary medicine. This favours a cause-and-effect link between heart disease and coughing in this scenario. However, the signalment of dogs that develop degenerative mitral valve disease often is the same as the signalment of dogs that develop primary airway disease. This session will explore this overlap, and then describe methods for differentiating a cardiogenic cough from a non-cardiogenic cough, as well as treatment and prognostic consequences. Learning Objectives: 1. Understand the basis for coughing in dogs with heart disease. 2. Understand the signalment, history, and physical exam findings that overlap between dogs with degenerative mitral valve disease and dogs with primary airway disease, notably chronic sterile bronchial disease. 3. Be able to differentiate between respiratory signs caused by heart disease from those caused by heart disease. More abstracts in descending order of attendance figures received are: Canine mast cell tumours: margins, markers & prognostic factors Philip J. Bergman DVM, MS, PhD, DACVIM (Oncology) Director, Clinical Studies – VCA, Oncologist, Katonah-Bedford Veterinary Center, Bedford Hills, NY 10507 - Philip.Bergman@VCA.com General Information Mast cell tumours (MCT’s) are the most common tumour in the dog and the second most common tumour in the cat. MCT’s are primarily a disease of older dogs and cats, however, extremely young dogs and cats have been reported to have MCT’s. Canine breeds reported to be at increased risk for MCT’s are boxers, Boston terriers, Labrador retrievers, terriers and beagles. The only feline breed that has been reported to be at increased risk for MCT’s are Siamese. Most reports show no significant gender predilection for MCT’s in dogs or cats. The etiology of MCT’s is presently unknown. Many have suspected a viral aetiology due to MCT transplantability to susceptible laboratory dogs (extremely young or immunocompromised) with tumour cells and cell39th World Veterinary Association Congress, Cape Town, 16-19 April 2024

Vetnuus | June 2024 7 free extracts. Recent evidence shows that a significant percentage of dogs with higher-grade MCT’s have genetic mutations in c-kit (stem cell factor receptor) which may be responsible for the genesis and/ or progression of MCT’s in dogs. Not all dogs with MCT’s have c-kit mutations, suggesting that they are not the only mechanisms for the development and/or progression of MCT’s. Eighty-five to ninety percent of dogs and cats with MCT’s have solitary lesions. It is important to note that not all dogs or cats with multiple MCT’s have metastatic or systemic mastocytosis. Studies suggest that well-differentiated MCT’s are slow-growing, usually < 3-4 cm in diameter, without ulceration of overlying skin, variably alopecic and commonly are present for more than 6 months. In contrast, poorly differentiated MCT’s are rapidly growing, variably sized (but generally large), with ulceration of the underlying skin and inflammation/edema of surrounding tissues and lastly rarely are present for more than 2-3 months before presentation. Since most MCT’s are of moderatedifferentiation, signs may be somewhere between these two extremes. Management of dogs and cats with incidentally detected heart murmurs Etienne Côté DVM, DACVIM Department of Companion Animals, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, PE, Canada, C1A 4P3 Heart murmurs are routinely identified in dogs and cats presented for an exam that was not initially focused on the cardiovascular system. These incidentally detected murmurs can be caused by harmless processes (nonpathologic murmurs) or can be the first clue of an underlying structural heart problem (pathologic murmurs). In turn, pathologic murmurs can indicate a minor structural heart problem, or it can be the dominant health concern of the animal. The session will help participants stratify heart murmurs in terms of the severity of the underlying issue (is it all dependent on murmur grade?) and choose the best management strategy for an individual patient (does every animal with a murmur need an echo?). Learning Objectives: 1. Understand the characteristics of heart murmurs and how auscultation and palpation are the foundation for stratifying the differential diagnosis. 2. Understand the strengths and limitations of auscultatory findings: murmur grade, murmur point of maximal intensity, third heart sounds, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia. 3. Know the value of further diagnostic testing, notably echocardiography, in a patient with an incidentally detected heart murmur: exploratory vs. confirmatory. Spay/Neuter & Cancer: What Does the Data Really Say? Philip J. Bergman DVM, MS, PhD, DACVIM (Oncology) Director, Clinical Studies – VCA, Oncologist, Katonah-Bedford Veterinary Center, Bedford Hills, NY 10507 - Philip.Bergman@VCA.com Spaying/neutering are common practices in veterinary medicine aimed at controlling pet populations and preventing issues. However, recent research has appropriately raised questions about a potential association between these procedures and an increased risk of cancer in dogs and cats. Several studies suggest a complex interplay between sex hormones and cancer development, indicating that hormonal changes resulting from spaying or neutering could contribute to an altered cancer risk. In female dogs, early spaying has been linked to a decreased incidence of mammary and uterine cancers, compared to possible increased incidence of other cancers such as mast cell tumour, hemangiosarcoma, urothelial carcinoma and possibly lymphoma. Neutering male dogs may be associated with a lower risk of testicular tumours, but a higher risk of urothelial, prostatic and/or bone cancer in some breeds. Unfortunately, the vast majority of studies have utilized very small numbers of dogs with each of the above various tumours, making for less trust in making global recommendations. This trust is further reduced when large studies have found a prolongation in lifetime compared to intact patients. In cats, spaying or neutering has also been implicated in altering cancer susceptibility but the numbers of studies are remarkably less than in dogs currently. Early spaying in female cats appears to similarly reduce the risk of mammary tumours, but may concurrently increase the risk of other malignancies, such as lymphoma. Neutering male cats has been associated with an increased risk of certain cancers, including urinary tract cancers. While the current body of evidence highlights correlations, establishing definitive causation remains challenging. Research to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and inform more nuanced recommendations for veterinary practitioners is needed. A balanced approach, weighing the benefits vs the health risks, is essential to guide responsible and informed decisions regarding spaying and neutering practices in companion animals. How do we reduce anaesthetic mortality in small animal practice? Kenneth Joubert Veterinary Anaesthesia, Analgesia & Critical Care Services VAACCS Blood Bank Veterinary anaesthetic mortality has essentially been unchanged for the last 20 years since the first large-scale study was conducted. For healthy dogs undergoing routine procedures (ASA 1-2) the mortality Events I WVAC 2024

Vetnews | Junie 2024 8 « BACK TO CONTENTS is around 1:2000 patients but as the patients become sicker with more complex disease the mortality is 1:75 (ASA 3 – 5). For cats, the situation is worse with 1:1000 healthy cats (ASA 1 – 2) and sick cats at 1:71 (ASA 3 – 5). This gives an overall mortality of 1:601 for dogs and 1:419 for cats. Unfortunately, this mortality rate has remained unchanged for the last 20 years. In humans, the anaesthetic mortality currently is around 1:10 000 for elective procedures in healthy patients. We have a long way to go. The aim of this talk is to discuss strategies and ways to improve survival rates and outcomes for patients who undergo anaesthetic procedures in veterinary medicine. Nothing will improve if you don’t measure it. What is the current anaesthetic mortality in your practice? Start a quality improvement database and monitor your performance. Often doing this makes personnel sensitive to the issue and indirectly improves outcomes through awareness. This also enables us to set a target goal to work towards. Each morbidity and mortality should be analysed, the events leading up to incident, the clinical condition of the patient and possible strategies to prevent this in the future should be discussed. A plan should be formulated and instituted. This is the approach followed in the airline industry and has been shown to improve outcomes. As most errors come from human factors, a psychologically safe culture needs to be established in the practice so that everyone feels free to voice their thoughts and opinions. Most patients die in recovery (60% Cats, 47% Dogs) or maintenance of anaesthesia (46% Dogs, 30% Cats). This gives the first areas to target. Post-anaesthetic monitoring of patients is vital. The most valuable monitor is a person. That person needs to be appropriately trained to know what to look for and how to respond. Most deaths are related to the cardiovascular (36% Dogs, 24% Cats) or the respiratory (Cats 28%, Dogs 18%) systems. Appropriate and effective monitoring of these vital systems is crucial to improve outcomes. Early identification and intervention will improve outcomes. Diabetes mellitus: an update on pathophysiology, treatment, and monitoring in dogs and cats Muhammad Seedat Onderstepoort Veterinary Academic Hospital (OVAH), Onderstepoort, South Africa Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common endocrinological diagnosis in small animal practice, with parallels usually drawn between canine and feline DM to type I and type II DM in humans, respectively. Multiple review articles encompassing a variety of topics surrounding DM in dogs and cats have recently been published, including updates in definitions, genetic risk factors, pathophysiology, new diagnostic tools, present treatment strategies, future treatment options, and monitoring guidelines. Precision medicine, i.e. providing the right therapy for the right patient at the right time, is currently at the forefront of DM management in humans and is now an emerging concept in small animal veterinary practice as well. Exogenous insulin therapy remains the mainstay of DM management in dogs and cats. Recent advances have led to the development of new treatments in an attempt to perturb the common complications of DM management and improve owner compliance, with the most notable of these being the use of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors in cats. This presentation will review the latest literature regarding the pathophysiology, treatment, and monitoring of DM in small animals. Relevant comparisons to DM in human medicine will also be outlined as part of a One Health discussion. v Events I WVAC 2024

Vetnuus | June 2024 9 Events I WVAC 2024 The presentation that, according to the available statistics, gathered the greatest crowd in the Personal Development Category, was the presentation by Etienne van der Walt on the topic of Neuroscience for high-performance resilience in a chaotic world Pierre Ettienne van der Walt Neurozone, Cape Town, South Africa The current global ecosystem is rapidly paced. It is also riddled with a number of ‘pandemics’: The ‘Mental Pandemic’ is rife, causing a steep increase in depression, anxiety, addictions and suicide. Burnout is now known as a medical syndrome and is affecting ever increasing numbers of employees and leaders globally. The ‘Great Resignation’ and increased staff turnover, demands a new way of thinking about the way we design our business ecosystems. This is also true for the veterinary profession who have additional challenges of compassion fatigue, small business challenges and unrealistic expectations from their clients. In this keynote, neurologist and CEO of Neurozone, Dr P Etienne van der Walt will provide a perspective on the global factors contributing to burnout and mental health challenges. He will unpack the nature of psychobiological resilience and then translate it for practical application in today’s world. Etienne will provide a framework for collective resilience that may well be the antidote for burnout and even the mental pandemic. In the process he will highlight the most important themes that underpin high-performance resilience, always simplifying the complex from biological neuroscience to personal self-leadership application. Then Etienne will anchor the practical drivers of resilient, high performance such as sleep, exercise, nutrition, social safety, psychological safety, mindset, mindfulness and highperformance energy for practical individual and team integration, to enable veterinary professionals to unlock the best version of themselves and their people they lead. Resilient Veterinary Teams: how to ensure our teams are prepared to face the changes and challenges to come Jessica Moore-Jones Unleashed Coaching and Consulting, Perth, Australia. Taronga Zoo, Sydney, Australia There’s no denying that times are tough in the veterinary industry and might be about to get tougher. Our teams are tired, frustrated, and can’t see a light at the end of the tunnel. Attrition rates are high, burnout rates are worrying, and mental health is suffering. There is no silver bullet for these issues; they’re big, wicked problems that take a whole industry to start improving. BUT there are things we can do to support our teams. This session covers the scientifically backed factors that influence the resilience of teams in the face of adversity, what that looks like in the veterinary setting, and most importantly, it provides ideas and solutions for how you can start to build the resilience of your own team. Delivered by an experienced vet and executive manager who has led large teams through complex, contentious challenges, who actually knows what it is like to be in your shoes, as well as your teams’. The session is practical, engaging and based on the honest realities of leading a veterinary team as well as the most up-to-date science of leadership and resilience. You’ll walk away with real, useable tools and solutions that you can implement immediately, as well as long-term strategies and skills to start ensuring that your team is ready for challenges and changes to come. Human behaviour is the answer to animal outcomes: why the conventional teaching on communicating with clients doesn’t work, and how to actually get people to follow your recommendations Jessica Moore-Jones Unleashed Coaching and Consulting, Gidgegannup, Australia. Taronga Zoo, Sydney, Australia We’re taught at university, and by most conventional training, how to tell people what they need to do for their pets. As scientific professionals, we value best practices, scientific data, and peerreviewed research, and when we make recommendations to pet owners, we often use these same tactics. These methods assume that knowing better immediately translates to doing better. But humans don’t work like that. Logic and science may occasionally change someone’s level of knowledge, but it’s not the same as getting them to change a behaviour. The human health, public health, government policy and commercial marketing industries have understood this for decades, yet the veterinary profession, in our desire to maintain scientific integrity, continues to believe that improving knowledge will improve behaviour. To really make an impact on the outcomes for our patients, we need to understand how people DO work, rather than how we wish they did. This session offers an introduction to the science (and art) of human psychology and behaviour change, with a focus on getting our clients to follow our recommendations. If you find yourself having the same conversations over and over and never seem to see people doing differently, this is for you. Whether it’s finishing a whole course of antibiotics, encouraging expensive treatment options, improving a raw diet, helping obese pets lose weight or improving uptake of preventative medicines, if we confuse telling people the information with being able to change their behaviours, we will forever be chasing our tails. This session is high energy, fun, and a completely fresh perspective on how to reframe our conversations with clients to improve outcomes for our patients and reduce a vast proportion of the frustration that vets experience when dealing with clients Resilience and burn out in the vet practice Desiré J Rees Humanco, Durban, South Africa Part of the journey in managing stress is learning how to develop Resilience. The stronger we are at bouncing back after adversity, the greater our ability to take on the challenges and unforeseen events that usually floor us.

Vetnews | Junie 2024 10 « BACK TO CONTENTS Burnout, stemming from ongoing stress due to long hours and high workload is leaving the profession strained and exhausted. Gaining knowledge on how to identify the red flags and implement practical strategies to master our resilience in this area can change a practice from managing to thriving! Understanding the physiological consequences of chronic stress on the practitioner Johan P Schoeman University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa The presentation will begin by introducing stress as a non-specific, stereotypical, and similar response of the organism to a myriad of stressors such as cold, heat, injury, and starvation. Stress ranges from an acute physical crisis, such as an attack, to chronic physical challenges such as famines or parasites to psychological and social disruption that occur purely in our heads. The core of this response centres around the rapid mobilisation of stored energy. Heart rate, breathing and blood pressure increase for the optimal transport of nutrients and oxygen. There is clear blunting of the pain response and the unfortunate halting of long-term, expensive maintenance such as digestion, growth, reproduction, and immunity. We will touch on how optimal stresses and challenges increase cognitive and mental performance and discuss how stress which is severe or of long duration actually leads to marked impediments of the above. The presentation will make a clear distinction between positive stress, characterized by brief increases in heart rate, intensified focus, and mildly elevated cortisol, compared to tolerable stress which is serious but mitigated by positive buffering influences or relationships versus toxic stress which is intense and prolonged and unmitigated by buffering influences or relationships. We will also explore the difference between the concepts of homoeostasis, which strives to get the body’s responses back to a single optimum level or set point versus allostasis and allostatic load which represents cumulative “wear and tear”. This cumulative stress gradually elevates the normal set point leading to heightened neural and neuroendocrine responses which characterise many modernday diseases such as type-2 diabetes, inflammatory bowel syndrome, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. Ultimately, allostatic overload leads to functional and cognitive decline, premature ageing, and early death. v Events I WVAC 2024

Vetnuus | June 2024 11 >>> 12 Implementing livestock welfare at all levels in the industry Gareth Francis Bath N/A, Pretoria, South Africa Having laws, regulations, standards, codes, guidelines and statements is important for establishing and maintaining animal welfare but these documents are only the printed basis for implementation. The purpose of these documents should be to persuade and guide all sectors of the industry to recognise the importance of livestock welfare, affirm their commitment to promote and protect it and ensure that measures are defended and implemented. The reasons why livestock welfare is important include its links with production, profitability, consumer perceptions, industry norms and expectations, laws, standards, ethics, and religious beliefs. Persuading all those involved in the industry requires a thorough knowledge of that industry, its many linkages with welfare principles and in turn the ethogram of that species. National and international documents are important – applicable policies, statements, guidelines, codes, standards, regulations and laws are best transmitted to livestock chain participants by repeated exposure via suitable media and simplified messages. Industry Codes of Best Practice that incorporate Welfare Norms are a powerful way of ensuring that these norms are known. However, they should always be followed up by levels of monitoring implementation and compliance, from informal self-evaluation to industry checks and independent assessments. A wide variety of issues affecting welfare should be addressed and reviewed for possible revision regularly or as required by changing circumstances. Norms that arise from full consultation, discussion and concessions leading to industry-wide consensus and full support and implementation are proven to be the best way to make progress. Live exportation of animals by sea: animal welfare issues and the shifting trade routes Bryce Marock The National Council for SPCAs This is a topic that has been a controversial for many decades, and it is unsurprising that SAVA has taken a position to not fully embrace the trade. This position falls in line with the other large veterinary associations throughout the world. In South Africa, the trade has been limited to short haul journeys, monitored by the NSPCA. This would include, monitoring of loading, travelling with the vessels, being present at unloading, and inspecting slaughter overseas. While remaining opposed to the trade, the NSPCA continues with necessary welfare enforcement, and will take part in the proposed regulations. The welfare concerns include but are not limited to heat stress, cold stress, injury, rapid spread of disease, hygiene issues, rough seas, lack of visibility of dead and dying animals, limitations in treatment, noxious gas buildup, breakdowns, refusal at ports, 24-hour lighting, feed insufficiencies, constant loud noise, and a lack of water. The global livestock fleet is one of the oldest in the world and according to data from credible maritime authorities, the risk of being lost is twice that of the general cargo fleet. There are several reasons for this, but notably because most are retired converted car, oil and cargo carriers. South Africa is recognized for high welfare standards, but now, under increased scrutiny worldwide, including full and partial bans, any company with any vessel may seek out South Africa as an alternative. The trade is under increased global scrutiny with international media interest, due to threats of full or partial bans and extended journey times to avoid war. Veterinarians in all parts of the world have been involved to some extent, and it is appropriate for all to become aware of the current issues as the World Organization for Animal Health begins soon revising the outdated relevant chapter in 2024. Applying WOAH animal welfare standards in Southern Africa - pipe dream or possibility? Quixi Sonntag1, Luigi Iannetti2, Michele Podaliri2 1EduPet Veterinary Consulting, Pretoria, South Africa. 2IZSAM, Teramo, Italy Perceptions exist that animal welfare (AW) in developing countries, especially in Africa, cannot be held to the same AW standards as developed countries, posing the question as to whether it is realistic for countries in Africa to strive for World Organisation of Animal Health (WOAH) AW standards. In this paper, we aim to answer this question, with particular reference to the Southern African Development Community (SADC). We situate our paper against the background of a WOAH twinning project between an Italian (IZS-Teramo) and a South African institution (University of Pretoria) aimed at capacitating the SADC region in the field of AW. Various activities were undertaken as part of this twinning programme including in-person workshops and an online course in AW. Activities of the twinning programme were continued in the framework of the ERFAN (Enhancing Research for Africa Network) initiative. Data were generated from a survey that formed part of the course and a participatory workshop. The survey focused on the state of AW in relation to the WOAH standards in six SADC countries(Botswana, Eswatini, Lesotho, South Africa, Zambia, and Zimbabwe), whether the standards provided a useful framework or not to address AW issues, in which degree they are included in the national legislation and what is required to enable each country to meet the standards. All countries included in the survey had official government policies and programmes with the final aim of complying with WOAH AW standards. In all countries, legislation on AW is in force or under development, particularly on slaughtering and dog population management. Voluntary AW standards and SOPs are widespread among large producers in some countries. Workshop participants identified mini-goals as the first steps towards the successful implementation of WOAH standards for AW. There was agreement that the basic principles enshrined in the WOAH standards could be applied in Southern Africa, albeit in a different way that would make sense to local societies. The practical applications are elaborated on in the final paper. Ethical leadership in animal welfare for veterinary industry and practice Dr Heather Bacon Dean of School, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK, hbacon@ uclan.ac.uk As vets, we value our companion animals not just for themselves as individuals but also for what they represent and bring to our lives, for example, as symbols of a particular breed, as companions that are valuable to our clients, and instrumentally, as a source of professional challenge, pride and income. This mixed value can confound our Events I WVAC 2024

Vetnews | Junie 2024 12 « BACK TO CONTENTS ability to provide for their welfare needs, and sometimes the welfare needs of cats and dogs may be in conflict with our own personal and professional priorities as veterinarians. Such challenges may create moral stress and disagreement in the veterinary team further exacerbating professional wellbeing challenges. Society and veterinary associations expect veterinarians to take a leadership role in animal welfare. For example, WSAVA calls upon all veterinarians to promote and support: 1. activities which improve the welfare of animals not just within the veterinary clinic, but in the broader community. 2. collaboration with other institutions and organisations to promote the understanding of animal welfare across communities. 3. the development of policy and legislation which protects and promotes good animal welfare and responsible pet ownership. However public trust in the veterinary profession and wider industry may be challenged if vets aren’t seen to live up to these expectations. This presentation will discuss the benefits and risks of an “Animal first” approach to promoting animal welfare as a veterinarian, using a range of real-life case studies. How can the vet profession help to regenerate the planet Anthony Chadwick The Webinar Vet There can be a feeling of hopelessness when we see the effects of climate change around the planet. We suspect that governments are moving too slowly and does big business care? As individuals and a profession who can care about animals and the profession, we are in a very good position to facilitate the regeneration of the planet into a more healthy, biodiverse place. During the presentation, we will review the present situation; give some easy tips that we can utilise in our private lives and practices and look at some of the initiatives going on around the world that are making a difference for the planet. v Are South African dairy producers ready to change to selective dry cow therapy? Inge-Marie Petzer Pretoria Department of Production Animal Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort 0110, South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa Intramammary treatment during the dry period is almost twice as effective for bacterial cure, versus treatment during lactation. Dry cow treatment aims to both cure and prevent new intramammary infections. There is a global strategy to reduce antimicrobial use, targeting dairy cattle dry cow therapy. Selective dry cow treatment may be a viable option to reduce antimicrobial use and maintain udder health. However, it cannot just be incorporated as a management tool in any herd without changes in farm management. Criteria used abroad for selective dry cow therapy include a bulk somatic cell count (SCC) ≤ 250 000 cells/ml and individual cows SCC ≤ 200 000 cells/ml just prior to drying, with or without microbiology information. South African herds have a unique combination of challenges, including decreased number (44%) of commercial dairy producers and increased milk production per producer (85%) over the past 6 years. The average number of cows in milk per herd is high at 563. There are two prominent farming systems that require different management approaches: high yielding total mixed rations (TMR) and lower yield pasture-based herds. Furthermore, cows are exposed to high temperature humidity index on pasture for most of the year and can walk up to 5 km daily. The main mastitis-causing pathogens isolated from milk of S.A. dairy cows are Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus uberis, both intracellular bacteria and difficult to treat effectively. Streptococcus uberis is mainly an environmental bacterium for which effective dry cow treatment is relied upon. This work was made possible through the “Reducing the Threat of Rift Valley Fever through Ecology, Epidemiology and SocioEconomics” project, which is coordinated by the National Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory Service, the University of Pretoria, and EcoHealth Alliance. These collaborating organizations partnered with the Agricultural Research Council, ExecuVet and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to develop this early warning system. The project depicted is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Defence, Defence Threat Reduction Agency. A systematic approach to health & production in large commercial cattle feedlots in South Africa - Part 1 Dirk J Verwoerd Karan Beef, Heidelberg, South Africa Production Strategies applicable to feedlot cattle vary according to Geographical- & Market realities;[South Africa-Brazil-USA-CanadaAustralia], this provides the context within which we design and implement Preventative Health Programs, Therapeutic Protocols and monitor Animal Health & Production parameters to detect corrective interventions and/or opportunities for improvements. Profiling: Risk vs Potential: Beef cattle are farmed in Southern Africa in a variety of ecological zones. The region is characterised by periodic droughts in some parts concomitant with other areas experiencing exceptional rain. Constraints include a huge assembly of infectious diseases, tickborne - & parasitic conditions as well as a plethora of toxic plants, while a large variety of cattle breeds produced under a wide range of management systems from communal-, emerging /small scale to large commercial herds, are offered to feedlots. All these variables combine into distinct seasonal and geographical origin patterns dictating a dynamic, pragmatic High vs Low, Risk vs Potential 2x2 permutation that directs appropriate Processing protocols, Risk mitigation strategies and Production programs. These are adjusted within optimal cost of gain economic guidelines. Mortality Diagnoses & Forensic Epidemiology: All mortalities undergo a standard macroscopic necropsy to determine a “basket” diagnosis. This Ultimate cause of death is the start of a retrospective, forensic epidemiological process to determine the Proximate cause of death. The latter stimulates the introduction of interventions ranging from infrastructure changes, and adjustments in management techniques to modifications to nutritional/medical programs. Clusters of Acute Digestive Deads relate to recent [</= 48h] changes to rations or interruptions in eating patterns. Clusters of Delayed Digestive Deads relate to typical intervals for each manifestation following a predictable Ripple Effect pattern. Events I WVAC 2024

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